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Volatile-Rich Planet Loading the player MESSENGER measurements Store enviroment revealed that Mercury is surprisingly abundant in volatile elements that evaporate at moderately high temperatures, ruling out many of the models for its formation and early history that had been proposed before the Store enviroment.
Because potassium is much more volatile than thorium, the ratio of the abundances of these two elements is a sensitive measure of thermal processes that fractionate elements by volatility. For Mercury, as seen in the first graph, this ratio is similar to that for other terrestrial planets at greater distances from the Sun but significantly higher than that for the Moon, which lost potassium during the giant impact that led to its formation.
Relatively high abundances of other volatile elements, including sulfur right side of the animationsodium, and chlorine, provide further evidence that Mercury is volatile-rich. The high sulfur contents combined with low amounts of iron on the planet's surface additionally indicate that Mercury formed from materials with less oxygen than those that formed the other terrestrial planets, providing an important constraint on theories for the formation of all of the planets in the inner Solar System.
The internal magnetic field is times weaker than that of Earth and barely stands off the solar wind at the subsolar point to form the magnetosphere.
The interaction of the planetary field with the solar wind generates currents in the magnetosphere, Store enviroment induce external magnetic fields with magnitudes similar to or larger than the planetary field in much of the magnetosphere.
The floor of the kilometer-diameter crater Kertesz centered at The formation of hollows remains an active area of research, but the etched nature of the features, such as in this image, suggests that material is being lost from the surface to create the hollows.
The scene begins with Timgad Vallis near the top of the screen and Angkor Vallis near the bottom. The movie follows Angkor Vallis into the large crater Kofi km diameter, centered at In these global views, the Caloris impact basin is initially in the center, and the colors on the spinning globes represent the ratios by weight of magnesium to silicon and aluminum to silicon.
Silicon is known to be relatively homogenous across the surface, so these maps demonstrate variations in the abundances of magnesium and aluminum, both of which are sensitive to the details of the interior melting that produced the lavas that formed the surface volcanic deposits.
This image provides a perspective view of the central portion of Carnegie Rupes, a large tectonic landform that cuts through Duccio crater km diameter, centered at The image shows topographic heights as measured by the Mercury Laser Altimeter and surface features mapped by the Mercury Dual Imaging System.
Variations in topography are shown in color red: Tectonic landforms such as Carnegie Rupes formed by horizontal shortening in response to cooling and contraction of the planetary interior. In the animation, which spans more than two Mercury years, orange indicates high concentrations of sodium, and blue indicates low concentrations.
During parts of a Mercury year, the radiation pressure from the scattering process is sufficiently strong to strip much of the atmosphere and form a long glowing tail. The interaction of the solar wind with the planetary field generates waves in particles and fields, and reconnection of interplanetary and planetary magnetic field lines and circulation of magnetic flux in the magnetosphere occur times faster than at Earth.
This animation shows the temporal evolution of ion density in the equatorial plane, looking down from the north pole. Kelvin-Helmholtz surface waves form at the magnetopause near the sub-solar point and grow as they move anti-sunward.
A puzzle raised after brief observations by the Mariner 10 spacecraft was the nature of apparent bursts of energetic particles.
Because of instrument limitations, neither the identity of these particles—ions or electrons—nor their energy was known. The energetic particles are electrons, not ions, and they have energies from several thousands of electron volts to times that energy.
Electrons with energies in excess of electron volts 1 keV can produce X-rays by hitting parts of the spacecraft or instruments. The electrons are seen at all local times the Sun is at local noon and within a planetary diameter of the center of Mercury, although more tend to be located near dawn.
The sources and loss process for these energetic electrons remain under study. These field-aligned, or Birkeland, currents flow downward blue at dawn and upward red at dusk and have magnitudes times smaller than at Earth.
Models for the electrical conductivity of the planet suggest that the currents flow radially through the low-conductivity layers near the surface and laterally from dawn to dusk through more conductive material at depth.
The latter need was because the gravitational pull of the Sun caused a drift of the periapsis with succeeding orbits. Early in the orbital phase of the mission, that drift was upward; for the last two years that drift has been downward.
This gas can be expelled out of the same thrusters that formerly combusted liquid rocket fuel for propulsion. With careful planning, this helium gas is expected to add several weeks to the life of the mission.
Following selection for flight in and the beginning of the project in Januarymore and more individuals contributed to the MESSENGER concept, design, spacecraft, and mission:We compile for you. Get app-store ready apps without the headache of maintaining native SDKs.
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