A discussion of importance of toxic chemicals

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A discussion of importance of toxic chemicals

One Change Counts –

The following example illustrates this principle. Suppose ten goldfish are in a ten-gallon tank and we add one ounce of proof whiskey to the water every five minutes until all the fish get drunk and swim upside down.

Probably none would swim upside down after the first two or three shots. After four or five, a very sensitive fish might. After six or eight shots another one or two might. With a dose of ten shots, five of the ten fish might be swimming upside down. After fifteen shots, there might be only one fish swimming properly and it too would turn over after seventeen or eighteen shots.

The effect measured in this example is swimming upside down. Individual sensitivity to alcohol varies, as does individual sensitivity to other poisons. There is a dose level at which none of the fish swim upside down no observed effect.

There is also a dose level at which all of the fish swim upside down. The dose level at which 50 percent of the fish have turned over is known as the ED50, which means effective dose for 50 percent of the fish tested. The ED50 of any poison varies depending on the effect measured.

In general, the less severe the effect measured, the lower the ED50 for that particular effect. Obviously poisons are not tested in humans in such a fashion. Instead, animals are used to predict the toxicity that may occur in humans.

One of the more commonly used measures of toxicity is the LD The LD50 says nothing about non-lethal toxic effects though. A chemical may have a large LD50, but may produce illness at very small exposure levels.

A discussion of importance of toxic chemicals

It is incorrect to say that chemicals with small LD50s are more dangerous than chemicals with large LD50s, they are simply more toxic. The danger, or risk of adverse effect of chemicals, is mostly determined by how they are used, not by the inherent toxicity of the chemical itself.

The LD50s of different poisons may be easily compared; however, it is always necessary to know which species was used for the tests and how the poison was administered the route of exposuresince the LD50 of a poison may vary considerably based on the species of animal and the way exposure occurs.

Some poisons may be extremely toxic if swallowed oral exposure and not very toxic at all if splashed on the skin dermal exposure. The potency of a poison is a measure of its strength compared to other poisons. The more potent the poison, the less it takes to kill; the less potent the poison, the more it takes to kill.

The potencies of poisons are often compared using signal words or categories as shown in the example in table 2. The designation toxic dose TD is used to indicate the dose exposure that will produce signs of toxicity in a certain percentage of animals.

The TD50 is the toxic dose for 50 percent of the animals tested. The larger the TD the more poison it takes to produce signs of toxicity. The toxic dose does not give any information about the lethal dose because toxic effects for example, nausea and vomiting may not be directly related to the way that the chemical causes death.

A discussion of importance of toxic chemicals

The toxicity of a chemical is an inherent property of the chemical itself. It is also true that chemicals can cause different types of toxic effects, at different dose levels, depending on the animal species tested.

For this reason, when using the toxic dose designation it is useful to precisely define the type of toxicity measured, the animal species tested, and the dose and route of administration.Getting back to the issue of toxic chemicals, recent research on cells, funded by the California Breast Cancer Research Program, found that parabens — a chemical commonly found in personal care and beauty products — may stimulate breast cancer growth even at very low levels.

Breast cancer will affect 1 in 8 women during their lifetime — and it is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in the United States.

But 8 in 8 women are being exploited by . Dec 02,  · How composting can help to eliminate organic waste, fertilize the soil, save money and reduce pollution.

Back in grade school, composting was often one of the topics that came up in Science class, especially when recycling was the main point of discussion. Historical Sources which reflect prior scientific knowledge of hazardous effects of chemical substances are important in cases of toxic exposure litigation.

Mitochondrial Toxicity | Mitochondrial Disease Action Committee - MitoAction

In addition to publications listed here, earlier editions of important works are noted in other sections of this guide. The TCLP list includes a relatively small number of industrially important toxic chemicals and is based on the leachate concentration, above which a waste is considered hazardous.

Failure to pass the TCLP results in classification of a material as a toxic waste. ORGANIC MATTER, HUMUS, HUMATE, HUMIC ACID, FULVIC ACID AND HUMIN: THEIR IMPORTANCE IN SOIL FERTILITY AND PLANT HEALTH Dr. Robert E. Pettit .

Toxic Chemicals : Environmental Health, Safety & Risk Management : Texas State University